A Guide To Colour Grading

Before continuing with the subject of this article, I would like to acknowledge that the reason this article has been long over due is to the amount of exciting work that has been happening recently. There will be some case study articles to be released in the days to come and I cannot wait to share the behind the scenes info with you. Now onto the subject of this article, colour grading.

Colour grading is a post-production effects based process for your film or video project. The creative process of your project means having complete control over the look and feel of your images, colour being a part of this process.

Before continuing with this article, let us take a step back to something I mentioned in my previous article on The Guide to DSLR Video…The Picture Style. The picture style is the final outcome of what you are filming, and the information you can work with in your editing suite. In this article I will specifically talk about what you can edit when it comes to the information of light and colour captured in your images. This is why the Neutral Picture Style or the Technicolor Picture Style is a popular use among camera operators, because the style provides a dynamic range of image information to correct and adjust afterwards.

colorgrading

Primary Colour Grading

The first thing you want to make an adjustment to is what’s called the primary adjustments. This is the actual correction part of the process, making sure the light is balanced. In colour grading tools, a histogram should be visible, to aid you in making these adjustments. I always find starting with the dark areas helps. For dark areas you want the bottom peak of the information in the histogram to just touch the baseline. Then with lighter areas, you want the peak of the information in the histogram to just about touch the 100 line. There will always be some overexposed areas with the whites, so it doesn’t have to be exact. Have the video showing to make sure it looks correct. As an extra tip, I find making the image black and white helps as a guild to getting your definitive contrast between light and shadow, and then restore the colour afterwards.

Don’t change colour saturation until you are ready to move onto the secondary colour grade. The last thing you need to do before moving on to this is to correct any colour balance issues. Is there too much of a singular colour in your image, is it too green or blue. Using the three colour wheels in your toolbar, make adjustments to balance the colours in your image.

Secondary Colour Grading

Now that your image has been corrected, it’s on to the secondary adjustments. This is the aesthetic process of your colour grading, the design of how your image is meant to look and feel. Let’s look at your image as a whole, how colourful do you want it to be. Colour grading also has an emotional effect over your audience. Desaturating the colour will give an expression of sadness and gloom, where as high saturation in colour can uplift the mood of your audience.

Now I want you to break down your image into every single colour that is there. Which ones do you want to be more saturated and which ones do you want to be less saturated, or not in there at all. Your colour grading tool can allow you to achieve this. Using a mixture of markers, geography and colour wheels, you can manipulate your image to get a balance of the only colours you want in your image.

In summary you can make the colour in your film or video look the way you want by:

  • Balancing the light and shadow in your image.
  • Correcting the reds, greens and blues in your image.
  • Making changes to the saturation in your image.
  • Break down your image into objects and their colours, which ones should change and be enhanced.


A Guide To Video Editing

Hello

2 Bee Videos have been away for a couple of weeks due to a big project in the editing suite. It is now complete and I will be releasing a case study article about the project sometime soon. Now that I’m back it’s onto this week’s main article.

 

So you have finished filming your content, now you’ve got to cut it together. In this article I will go through the processes and techniques professionals use to create the structure of their final film and video projects.

An Introduction To Video Editing
The way your video is edited together is something that should be thought through in the pre-production process when choosing how you are going to capture your subject on video. We all process information sequentially, so the job of the video editor is to make the audience forget they’re looking at a screen filled with a series of images and concentrate on the fact that they are watching a story. In summary the video editor has to hide the fact that they have created cuts, this is called seamless editing. This is done by joining two separate shots that have a physical or emotional connection between them. So if you make a list of shots contained in your video, you are also creating cut points and how the video is edited together. It’s important to know how your shots will be cut together before you start filming.

Before I move on and talk to you about the different kinds of cuts between shots, I should mention one more thing. Just like when I mentioned in my previous article about framing shots and how it has an emotional effect on it’s audience, the same is said for video editing. If I have less frequent cuts and/or a long shot duration with no cutting, then the video gives a slow expression. This intention for not cutting very much is perfect for scenes of a calm nature because the slow nature of the editing matches the emotion of the scene. It’s the same for more frequent cutting, lots of cuts between shots gives a fast expression and is perfect for past paced action scenes because the fast nature of the editing matches the emotion of a fast paced action scene.

Before, On & After
Most cuts in film and video happen around a specific action within the frame. Simply put, you can cut before an action, on an action or after an action. Each way of cutting effect the emotional outcome of how an audience reacts emotionally to the scene and the story.

Match Cutting
Match cutting is a technique in which two images that have a physical likeness are cut together. Edgar Wright is a brilliant film director and a master when it comes to staging shots for the edit. A good example of match editing from “The World’s End”, the use of empty pint glasses on a table outside during the day with someone walking past frame is used to cut into the next scene starting with someone walking past frame to reveal full pint glasses on a table inside during the night. The two shots are framed perfectly so that the table and pint glasses physically match the same space they occupy on screen, as a way of transitioning from one scene to the next.

edit1-1 edit1-2

Using The Frame Or Camera
Using the camera and frame in order to make a cut is a great way of making seamless cuts. This is done by matching the movements of the camera or frame from one shot to the next. A great example I’ve used previously is the camera swipe cut. This is using the camera to pan quickly in one direction at the end of a shot, and then continue the same movement at the start of the next shot to create a transitioning cut between the two.

Cut-in & Cutaway
A cut-in and cutaway edit is the cutting together of two shots with the same angle but at completely different lengths. The use of and effect of a cut-in edit is to identify details that the camera cannot see from a distance, and the visa versa for a cutaway.

edit2-1 edit2-2

Scene Transitions
There are two typical uses for transitioning from one scene to the next. The first is cross dissolve, involving blending the end of one shot to the next with a fade. The other is to fade the end of one shot to black, and then fade from black into the next shot. The effect of both these transitions shows the movement of time and space in the story.

Using Light
The use of light can be used create edits also. Most commonly a crescendo in overexposure at the end of one shot and cutting into an overexposed shot ascending in exposure. The effect has a thriller intention with the film’s audiences.

Editing On Sound
Using sound as an edit point is also used to create effective cuts. Usually in a dialogue scene the cut is made on the moment the sound of the other person starts talking, not before, to create a more seamless cut. Matching sounds from one shot to the next is also a good way of editing between two scenes.

 

In summary you can make a great edit for your video or film using the following kind of editing techniques:

  • Cutting Before, On or After an action.
  • Creating a Match Cut using two shots with a physical resemblance.
  • Using the Frame or Camera to create an edit point.
  • Enhance details by using a Cut-ins & Cutaway.
  • Using cross dissolves and fades to create Scene Transitions.
  • Using Light or overexposed shots to create edit points.
  • Editing On Sound to create seamless cuts.


A Guide To DLSR Video

Introducing The DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex)
DSLR cameras are a great tool for capturing high quality video with cinematic capabilities. This is because the sensor inside the camera captures full 1080i HD video, and the choice of lens can give a cinematic look. There are limitations and it’s best to know what your camera can and cannot achieve before using it for a project. Especially if that project is set to a strict schedule with no extra time.

Changing The Battery And Lenses
Have more than one battery. Currently my DSLR battery will last half a day with the camera kept switched on. With lenses, a basic kit zoom lens size of 18-55mm is good for when shooting fast, giving you the ability to shoot from wide angle to close up in a second. But it will not look cinematic, for this you need a prime lens size. In my kit I have a 11mm for wide shots, a 28mm for medium sized shots and a 50mm for close ups. These lenses have a very low f.stop of 1.4. (An f.stop is the size of the aperture.) This means it has the ability to shoot shallow depths of field, thus giving a cinematic look. Never ever touch the sensor inside the camera or the inside of a lens.

The Ideal DSLR Camera Settings For Video
You want to have as much control over what you film and it’s dynamic range. For this that means changing some of the camera’s settings. Automatic focus is a nightmare, change this to manual. When shooting with automatic focus the camera is in charge and guesses the focal point of your shot. It’s always wrong so best you stay in charge of the focus. Mounting a follow focus on the side of your camera helps very well with focusing your subject. You can use it to adjust focus more easily, and also mark multiple subjects at different lengths so you can pull focus between them perfectly. For great tips on getting the best settings out of your DSLR, follow Philip Bloom.

philipbloom.net

Balancing The White
A setting to be wary of when roaming locations is the White Balance. Depending on your location and it’s main light source, the colour temperature will be different in the white areas of your image. Be sure to set the correct white balance setting with your main light source. For example if I’m shooting outside in the Sun, I will set my white balance setting to Sunlight. And when I go inside and I’m filming under florescent lighting, I will set my white balance setting to florescent light. There are presets for white balancing, but the most effective way is to balance it manually. This is done by presenting and photographing a piece of white A4 paper, and telling the camera this information is white. Simply refer to the DSLR’s instruction manual to manually set the white balance.

whitebalancepresets

The Picture Style
With the Picture Style setting on your camera, you are choosing for definite how the image will look. For example you can capture images with a standard picture style, and convert it to a monochrome (black & white) picture style afterwards. But if you capture images in monochrome, you cannot simply convert it back to colour with the flick of a switch. You want to have as much control over your captured image, so for this I strongly recommend using the Neutral picture style when recording video.

In every picture style there are 4 settings you can adjust, sharpness, contrast, saturation and colour tone. In the Neutral picture profile, sharpness will be set to zero, you should not change this. You should change the contrast to -4, otherwise the blacks in the image will look crushed. Last thing is to bring the saturation down to -2. The colour is very rich and reducing this will give you more dynamic range when your project enters colour grading in post-production. The colour tone will be set to zero, this is good and shouldn’t be changed. Another great free to use tool that I mentioned in a previous article is the Cine-Style colour profile. This gives you even more definition in the darker areas.

Frames Per Second
You also have the option to select how many frames per second your video records, which is 24 and 25. 24 frames per second gives you film style motion, and 25 frames per second gives you television style motion. It’s up to you which one best fits your project. Some DSLR cameras have the ability to shoot higher rates of frames per second, which is great for shooting a slow motion effect. However it’s best to choose the final output after post-production as either 24fps or 25fps.

Capturing The Speed Of Light
When using your DSLR fresh from the box, another automatic setting that needs to be changed to manual is the exposure. For the same reason as focusing, it’s best to stay in charge of your exposure. The camera will choose your exposure for the purpose of showing all detail in the frame. But maybe you want the picture to be underexposed or overexposed.

When changing this setting three other settings become available to change, the aperture, the shutter speed and the ISO. Photography 101, changing the shutter speed effects the amount of light going into the camera and the clarity of movement. Changing the aperture effects the amount of light going into the camera and the size of the focal depth. Changing the ISO effects the sensitivity of light without comprising shutter speed and aperture, just remember that the higher the ISO the grainier the image will become. Here’s a graphic to help explain.

capturechart

Rigging Your DSLR Camera
Now that the camera is set, it needs to be rigged. There are a number of specially manufactured DSLR rigs providing stabilisation and fluid movement, thus making your video look clean and professional. A tripod with fluid head gives that all important stabilisation and steady panning to a fixed shot. If you want to move the camera but keep it stable, a shoulder rig is what you need. However if you want the camera to follow a moving subject smoothly, the shoulder rig won’t help you. Try it, a hundred to one you will notice the frame moving up and down when you move with a subject during the shot. For this you need a steady-rig. It uses a weight to counterbalance the camera on top of a handle, so no matter where the handle moves, the camera stays steady.

Storage Space
One of the limitations with DSLR video is you can only record bursts of up to 12 minutes long. If you plan to shoot one continuous shot uncut over this amount of time, video from a DSLR is not for you. Depending how much video you want to capture to one card without changing it, I recommend at least having three of the 32GB SDHC cards, class 6 to 10. With this card I can record continuously for half a day before I run out of space. In 10 seconds I can change to another card for the next half of the day, with a backup just in case.

rode-videomic-directional-on-camera-condenser-shotgun-microphone-1The Microphone
In a previous article I mentioned how unhelpful an inbuilt DLSR microphone is. This microphone is programmed to capture every single piece of sound in it’s 360° radius, and cannot be changed. Not helpful if you want to pin point a specific sound among other sounds. If you’re not recording sound externally and want good sound from your DSLR video, I recommend fixing a Rode DSLR microphone to your camera.

 

DIY_photography_hacks_camera_tips_rain_DCM131.shoot_gearcraft.step4_rgbWeather Proofing
Always be prepared. If you must film in the rain, weather protect your camera. There’s plenty of weather proofing products for DSLR cameras.

 

 

 

So remember, when using your DSLR to capture video make sure you:

  • Have enough battery.
  • Choose the appropriate lenses.
  • Use the appropriate DSLR camera settings for videography.
  • White balance for different lighting changes.
  • Use the appropriate picture style.
  • Choose how many frames per second you capture.
  • Make sure you are capturing the speed of the light appropriately.
  • Your camera is rigged appropriately.
  • You have enough digital storage space.
  • Never use the DSLR’s in-built microphone.
  • Weather proof your DSLR camera.


A Guide To Lighting For Video

How the subject you are filming is lit can make or break a video. Obviously you want your audience to see what you are filming, but how it is lit can determine how your audience reacts emotionally to the subject you are filming. Different lighting techniques vary on different projects, and here is a quick guide to those techniques.

LED-Video-Light-and-DSLR-CameraAttaching A Light To Your Camera
When filming on the go, a good thing to have attached to the top of your camera is a small LED light. This comes in handy for lighting subjects close to camera. Things to look out for is making sure the subject is lit evenly. If that subject is a person, light them well, but make sure you don’t blind them.

 

 

3pointlightingsetupThe Three Point Lighting Setup
When setting up lights as a set piece, a good place to start is a “three point lighting system”. (This involves three separate lights.) This starts with a key light and is the main lighting source. This is placed next to and level with the camera, lighting the subject in front of camera. In interior locations with windows, this will be an extension to emphasize sunlight coming through a window lighting the subject from the front.

 

 

This light on it’s own will generate a “hard” lighting effect. One side of the subject is lighter, the other side much darker. This creates an expression of mystery and darkness. Great for drama and horror, but if this is not the intended expression, a fill light is needed. This light goes on the other side, level with the camera facing the subject and fills in the shadows created by the key light. Now your subject is evenly lit, a “soft” lighting effect. We can go softer, and create a romantic look. This is done with a back light. This light is placed high and behind the subject, creating a halo effect around the subject. This is the complete three point lighting system.

3pointlightingphoto

shootingwithgelsLight Intensity & Coloured Gels
Some lights can emit intense light or an unwanted colour temperature, so it’s important to balance everything out. For intense light, diffusion paper can be used to reduce the intensity of the light. You can also use coloured gel sheets to change the colour temperature of the light. This can be useful when correcting the balance of your light, or creating aesthetic effects.

 

 

 

reflectorBlocking & Bouncing
At times you will also need to block or bounce light on a subject. Another great and cheap trick I picked up from filmmaker Owen Benson is to get a big piece of white polystyrene board, and paint one side completely black. The black side can be used to block any unwanted light on a subject. The white side can be used to reflect light. Instances where light may need to be reflected is when you are filming outside in intense sunlight from above and you need to fill in the shadows by placing the white reflective board below the subject.

Please check out Owen Benson’s website below.

www.owenbensonvisuals.com

tinfoilwindowFilming Day For Night
If you are shooting inside with windows during the day, and want it to look like night, simply closing the curtain will not do. It will look exactly like it is, daylight with the curtains drawn closed. A brilliant, cheap trick I picked up from filmmakers on a feature film set is to wet the windows, and completely cover it with tin foil (shiny side out) and then shut the curtains. No light comes through the curtains, thus making it look like night.

 

 

 

 

Things to remember when lighting:

  • Attach a light to the camera for on the go shooting.
  • Use three point lighting for camera setups.
  • Adjust the lights intensity using diffusing materials.
  • Use coloured gels to create different lighting effects.
  • Block unwanted lighting.
  • Bounce light to enhance your lighting setup.
  • Completely block sunlight from windows when shooting day for night.

You are now ready to light your subject. Make it look good!